Wednesday, 23 February 2022

TECHNOLOGY

 

                                                               TECHNOLOGY

  Technology, the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life or, as it is sometimes phrased, to the change and manipulation of the human environment.Technology is the sum of any techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. System applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.

  Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies including today's global economy and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.

 The distinction between science, engineering, and technology is not always clear. Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability, and safety. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.  The history of mathematics, history of

technology, and history of philosophy are distinct areas of research and are covered in other articles. Mathematics is closely related to but distinct from natural science. Technology is likewise closely related to but clearly differs from the search for empirical truth.Some believe that within the next 10 years, humans will discover nanobot technology, while others believe that we are centuries away from its invention. It is believed by futurists that nanobot technology will allow humans to 'manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic scale.' This discovery could pave the way for many scientific and medical advancements, such as curing new diseases, or inventing new, more efficient technology. It is also believed that nanobots could be injected or otherwise inserted inside the human body, and replace certain parts, keeping humans healthy for an incredibly long amount of time, or combating organ failure to a degree.

MOBILE PHONE TECHNOLOGY  

Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication. Mobile technology has evolved rapidly over the past few years. Since the start of this millennium, a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a mobile phone, GPS navigation device, an embedded web browser and instant messaging client, and a handheld gaming console. Mobile 

technology has different meanings in different aspects, mainly mobile technology in information technology and mobile technology in basketball technology, mainly based on the wireless technology of wireless devices equipment information technology integration. Mobile technology gave human society great change. The use of mobile technology in government departments can also be traced back to World War I. In recent years, the integration of mobile communication technology and information technology has made mobile technology the focus of industry attention. With the integration of mobile communication and mobile computing technology, mobile technology has gradually matured, and the mobile interaction brought by the application and development of mobile technology has provided online connection and communication for Ubiquitous Computing and Any time, anywhere Liaison and information exchange provide possibilities, provide new opportunities and challenges for mobile work, and promote further changes in social and organizational forms.

  Mobile Internet emerged from the development of PC Internet in the form of handheld, portable devices. The combination of mobile communication and the Internet has allowed users to have easier access in going online if they have mobile technologies such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops amongst the most popular. It is a general term for activities in which the technology, platforms, business models, and applications of the Internet are combined with mobile communications technology.Increasing mobile technology use has changed how the modern family interacts with one another through technology. With the rise of mobile devices, families are becoming increasingly on-the-move, and spend less time in physical contact with one another. However, this trend does not mean that families are no longer interacting with each other, but rather have evolved into a more digitized variant. A study has shown that the modern family actually learns better with usage of mobile media, and children are more willing to cooperate with their parents via a digital medium than a more direct approach.

  Mobile e-commerce can provide users with the services applications, information and entertainment they need anytime, anywhere. Purchasing and using goods and services have become more convenient with the introduction of a mobile terminal. Not to mention, websites have started to adopt various forms of mobile payments. The mobile payment platform not only supports various bank cards for online payment, but also supports various terminal operations such as mobile phones and telephones, which meets the needs of online consumers in pursuit of personalization and diversification.he next generation of smartphones will be context-aware, taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange abilities. One of the main features applying to this is that phones will start keeping track of users' personal data, and adapt to anticipate the information will need.Companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. This has been described as making the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world. On the go,connectivity is more important than ever as smartphones are adapting to more and more tasks that one has to do sitting in front of a computer.

 Mobile technology, driven by the convergence of mobile communication technology and mobile computing technology, mainly includes four types of technologies.radio-based two-way radio communication or broadcast,mobile phone service based on cellular phones, SMS means Short Message Service, WAP means Wireless Application Protocol, GPRS means General Packet Radio Service, UMTS means 3G, 4G, 5G and now 6G Generation Mobile Communication Network, mobile-based, including laptops, tablets, PDAs means personal digital assistants, pagers, Bluetooth technology, RFID means radio frequency identification and GPS Global Positioning System,network-based WiFi or WAPI wireless Lan. 

 CAMERA TECHNOLOGY 

 A camera is an optical instrument that captures a visual image. At a basic level, cameras consist of sealed boxes
with a small hole that allows light through to capture an image on a light-sensitive surface. Cameras have various mechanisms to control how the light falls onto the light-sensitive surface. Lenses focus the light entering the camera. The aperture can be narrowed or widened. A shutter mechanism determines the amount of time the photosensitive surface is exposed to light.The still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography. Captured images may be reproduced later as part of the process of photography, digital imaging, or photographic printing. Similar artistic fields in the moving-image camera domain are film, videography, and cinematography.

  All cameras use the same basic design light enters an enclosed box through a converging or convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time that light enters the camera. Most cameras also have a viewfinder, which shows the scene to be recorded, along with means to adjust various combinations of focus, aperture and shutter speed.Light enters a camera through the aperture, an opening adjusted by overlapping plates called the aperture ring.Typically located in the lens, this opening can be widened or narrowed to alter the amount of light that strikes the film or sensor.The shutter, along with the aperture, is one of two ways to control the amount of light entering the camera. The shutter determines the duration that the light-sensitive surface is exposed to light. The shutter opens, light enters the camera and exposes the film or sensor to light, and then the shutter closes. There are two types of mechanical shutters: the leaf-type shutter and the focal-plane shutter. The leaf-type uses a circular iris diaphragm maintained under spring tension inside or just behind the lens that rapidly opens and closes when the shutter is released.

 The lens of a camera captures light from the subject and focuses it on the sensor. The design and manufacturing of the lens are critical to photo quality. A technological revolution in camera design during the 19th century modernized optical glass manufacturing and lens design.Due to the optical properties of a photographic lens, only objects within a limited range of distance from the camera will be reproduced clearly. The process of adjusting this range is known as changing the camera's focus. There are various ways to accurately focus a camera. The simplest cameras have fixed focus and use a small aperture and wide-angle lens to ensure that everything within a certain range of distance from the lens. Rangefinder cameras allow the distance to objects to be measured employing a coupled parallax unit on top of the camera, allowing the focus to be set with accuracy. Experimental cameras such as the planar Fourier capture array PFCA do not require focusing to take pictures. In conventional digital photography, lenses or mirrors map all of the light originating from a single point of an in-focus object to a single point at the sensor plane. Each pixel thus relates an independent piece of information about the far-away scene.

 Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic plates, or photographic film. Video and digital cameras use an electronic image sensor, usually a charge-coupled device CCD or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the camera for later playback or processing.For cine cameras, film 35mm wide and perforated with sprocket holes was established as the standard format in the 1890s. It was used for nearly all film-based professional motion picture production. For amateur use, several smaller and therefore less expensive formats were introducedTraditionally used to tell the camera the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, film speed numbers are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system.In digital cameras, there is electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters.

 A flash provides a short burst of bright light during exposure and is a commonly-used artificial light source in photography. Most modern flash systems use a battery-powered high-voltage discharge through a gas-filled tube to generate bright light for a very short time a second or less. Additional flash equipment can include a light diffuser, mount and stand, reflector, soft box, trigger and cord.

 In photography, the single-lens reflex camera is provided with a mirror to redirect light from the lens to the viewfinder prior to releasing the shutter for composing and focusing an image. When the shutter is released, the mirror swings up and away, allowing the exposure of the photographic medium, and instantly returns after the exposure is finishedAlmost all SLR cameras use a front-surfaced mirror in the optical path to direct the light from the lens via a viewing screen and pentaprism to the eyepiece. At the time of exposure, the mirror is flipped up out of the light path before the shutter opens. Some early cameras experimented with other methods of providing through-the-lens viewing, including the use of a semi-transparent pellicle as in the Canon Pellix and others with a small periscope such as in the Corfield Periflex series. The large-format camera, taking sheet film, is a direct successor of the early plate cameras and remained in use for high-quality photography and technical, architectural, and industrial photography. There are three common types: the view camera, with its monorail and field camera variants, and the press camera.

  Twin-lens reflex cameras used a pair of nearly identical lenses: one to form the image and one as a viewfinder. The lenses were arranged with the viewing lens immediately above the taking lens. The viewing lens projects an image onto a viewing screen which can be seen from above. Instant camera, After exposure, every photograph is taken through pinch rollers inside of the instant camera. Thereby the developer paste contained in the paper sandwich is distributed on the image. After a minute, the cover sheet just needs to be removed and one gets a single original positive image with a fixed format. Subminiature cameras were first produced in the nineteenth century and use film significantly smaller than 35mm. The introduction of films enabled the existing designs for plate cameras to be made much smaller

and for the baseplate to be hinged so that it could be folded up, compressing the bellows. These designs were very compact and small models were dubbed vest pocket cameras. Folding roll film cameras were preceded by folding plate cameras, more compact than other designs.9Box cameras were introduced as budget-level cameras and had few, if any controls. The original box Brownie models had a small reflex viewfinder mounted on the top of the camera and had no aperture or focusing controls and just a simple shutter. As camera lens technology developed and wide aperture lenses became more common, rangefinder cameras were introduced to make focusing more precise. Early rangefinders had two separate viewfinder windows, one of which is linked to the focusing mechanisms and moved right or left as the focusing ring is turned. A movie camera or a video camera operates similarly to a still camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession, commonly at a rate of 24 frames per second. When the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved. The size and complexity of ciné cameras vary greatly depending on the uses required of the camera. Some professional equipment is very large and too heavy to be handheld whilst some amateur cameras were designed to be very small and light for single-handed operation.A professional video camera often called a television camera even though the use has spread beyond television is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images as opposed to a movie camera, that earlier recorded the images on film.

  A camcorder is an electronic device combining a video camera and a video recorder. Although marketing materials may use the colloquial term camcorder, the name on the package and manual is often video camera recorder. Most devices capable of recording video are camera phones and digital cameras primarily intended for still pictures; the term "camcorder" is used to describe a portable, self-contained device, with video capture and recording its primary function. Digital camera A digital camera is a camera that encodes digital images and videos, and stores them for later reproduction. They typically use semiconductor image sensors. Most cameras sold today are digital, and they are incorporated into many devices ranging from mobile phones called camera phones to vehicles. The first camera using digital electronics to capture and store images was developed by Kodak engineer Steven Sasson, Consumers adopted digital cameras in the 1990s, Professional video cameras transitioned to digital around the 2000s–2010s, Finally, movie cameras transitioned to digital in the 2010s.

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY  

  Computer technology is hardware and software both. Basically, its a combination of these two, creating such a system between two that can let you perform particular functions.Computer technology for developing areas is often through the donation of technology to developing areas. Many institutions, government, charitable, and for-profit organizations require technology development often involving hardware or software design, and the coordination of donors, distributors, and deployers. Technical development overlaps with the fields of technical training, maintenance and support. Developing countries lag behind other nations in terms of ready access to the internet, though computer access has started to bridge that gap. Access to computers, or to broadband access, remains rare for half of the world's population.Africa presents a unique cultural climate for the introduction of computer technology not only because of its diverse population, varied geography and multifaceted issues but also because of it singular challenges. Africa is composed of 53 countries many gaining independence since 1950 containing 75 unique ethnic groups and approximately 700 million people. It has been colonized and hence influenced strongly by Europeans from France, Portugal, Britain, Spain, Italy and Belgium except for the countries of Ethiopia and Liberia. Martin & O'Meara describe Africa's diversity and some of the issues that it presents: ethnicity, geography, rural/urban life styles, family life, access to developed world products, education, and media.South Africa has one of the largest and most successful introductions of computers to the residents in Africa with the Smart Cape Access Project initiated in 2000 in Cape Town winning the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Access to Learning Award in 2003, Libraries had the important structure with security, electricity and telephone connections, and known access by the public. 

 Residents have used Internet access to build their own businesses using Smart Cape for administration, to obtain jobs sometimes over seas, to create some unsanctioned small-scale ventures such as paying an educated user to write one's resume, to write letters, e-mail, play games, complete homework and do research, and to obtain information such as BMW advertisements among other uses. Older people, unemployed youth and school children have been the most prevalent users of the Internet with 79 percent being men. Unlike the Smart Cape Access Project, many other projects that attempt to introduce computers to Africa fail not only in the sustainability issue but also in training, support and feedback. Although in many cases access to the Internet via cable or wireless and electricity remain overwhelming issues. An example of further difficulties surrounding introducing computers in Africa is found in the study of Mozambique one of the poorest nations of the world with 60 percent of its population below the poverty line. As a proponent of self-determination not excluding the benefit of philanthropy, a review of projects discussed above and others merged with the successful Fisher approach to KickStart International could provide a framework for more successful introduction of computers to Africa, possibly skipping to first world technology. Despite their poverty, Mozambicans view their education and access to the Internet as only second to obtaining enough food to eat.Martin Fisher started KickStart International with Nick Moon in 1991 as a non-profit organization that develops and markets new technologies for use in Africa. It develops technologies advocating understanding the cultural factors surrounding making money in Africa rather than an approach of giving away technology with expertise that has little to do with Africa's ability to make a living.

  While KickStart has not talked something as technically challenging as computers, its business plan can be easily adapted to the introduction of computers in Africa. For example, the Smart Cape Access Project has shown widespread success understanding the culture and environment of Cape Town, but still is concerned about sustainability and use by women. Most notable, the project needs to consider how access to the Internet can provide income producing tools to create new wealth and pursue a better maintenance plan. Also of importance is inclusion of women and girls' positive impact in the roll out of technologies for the eventual introduction of computers to Africa. Uganda typically has both repair and refurbishers of computers. In some countries charitable NPOs can give tax-deductible donation receipts for computers they're able to refurbish or otherwise reuse.

 Technology leaders like Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates argue that developing areas have more pressing needs than computer technology, A 2010 research report from the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre found Very few ICT4D activities have proved sustainable... Recent research has stressed the need to shift from a technology-led approach, where the emphasis is on technical innovation towards an approach that emphasises innovative use of already established technology mobiles, radio, television. However, of  applications of ICTs for development, E-government, E-learning and E-health were found to be possible of great success, as well as the strengthening of social networks and boosting of security particularly of women. Finally, while the training, support, hardware and software may all be donated, it is rare for another vital component of technology, Internet access, to be made available at a discounted rate. In about half the countries in Africa, one year of Internet supply will cost more than the average annual income.

    The history of mathematics, history of technology, and history of philosophy are distinct areas of research and are covered in other articles. Mathematics is closely related to but distinct from natural science. Technology is likewise closely related to but clearly differs from the search for empirical truth.Some believe that within the next 10 years, humans will discover nanobot technology, while others believe that we are centuries away from its invention. It is believed by futurists that nanobot technology will allow humans to 'manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic scale.' This discovery could pave the way for many scientific and medical advancements, such as curing new diseases, or inventing new, more efficient technology. It is also believed that nanobots could be injected or otherwise inserted inside the human body, and replace certain parts, keeping humans healthy for an incredibly long amount of time, or combating organ failure to a degree.




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HEAD PHONE TECHNOLOGY

                                                                                            HEAD PHONE TECHNOLOGY     Headphones are a pair...