Monday, 13 June 2022


                                                      HEAD PHONE TECHNOLOGY

    Headphones are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears.
Headphones are also known as earspeakers, earphones. Circumaural 'around the ear' and supra-aural 'over the ear' headphones use a band over the top of the head to hold the speakers in place. Another known as earbuds or earpieces.  Other are bone conduction headphones, which typically wrap around the back of the head and rest in front of the ear canal, leaving the ear canal open.Headphones connect to such as an audio amplifier, radio, CD player, portable media player, mobile phone, video game console, or electronic musical instrument,either directly using a cord, or using wireless technology such as Bluetooth.
  The first headphones were developed in the late 19th century. Headphones may be used with stationary CD and DVD players, home theater, personal computers, or portable devices e.g., digital audio player/MP3 player, mobile phone, as long as these devices are equipped with a headphone jack. Cordless headphones are not connected to their source by a cable. Headsets designed for telephone use typically cannot reproduce sound with the high fidelity of expensive units designed for music listening by audiophiles. Headphones that use cables typically have either a 1/4 inch (6.35mm) or 1/8 inch (3.5mm) phone jack for plugging the headphones into the audio
source. These early headphones used moving iron drivers, with either single-ended or balanced armatures. The common single-ended type used voice coils wound around the poles of a permanent magnet, which were positioned close to a flexible steel diaphragm. In early powered radios, the headphone was part of the vacuum tube's plate circuit and carried dangerous voltages. In 1958, John C. Koss, an audiophile and jazz musician from Milwaukee, produced the first stereo headphones. Various types of specially designed headphones or earphones are also used to evaluate the status of the auditory system in the field of audiology for establishing hearing thresholds, medically diagnosing hearing loss, identifying other hearing related disease, and monitoring hearing status in occupational hearing conservation programs.
  Headphones are available with high or low impedance (typically measured at 1 kHz). Low-impedance headphones are in the range 16 to 32 ohms and high-impedance headphones are about 100-600 ohms. In recent years, impedance of newer headphones has generally decreased to accommodate lower 
voltages available on battery powered CMOS-based portable electronics. This has resulted in headphones that can be more efficiently driven by battery-powered electronics. Consequently, newer amplifiers are based on designs with relatively low output impedance. A modern pair of headphones is driven by an amplifier, with lower impedance headphones presenting a larger load. Historically, many headphones had relatively high impedance, often over 500 ohms so they could operate well with high-impedance tube amplifiers. In contrast, modern transistor amplifiers can have very low output impedance, enabling lower-impedance headphones. Unfortunately, this means that older audio amplifiers or stereos often produce poor-quality output on some modern, low-impedance headphones. In this case, an external headphone amplifier may be beneficial. Sensitivity is a measure of how effectively an earpiece converts an incoming electrical signal into an audible sound. It thus indicates how loud the headphones are for a given electrical drive level. It can be measured in decibels of sound pressure level.
  Headphones with soldered headphone jack cables. Wireless on-ear headphones. Often has an inbuilt headphone jack. Wireless over-ear headphones. Often has an inbuilt headphone jack. ireless earphones
connected via a neckband.True wireless earbuds have no cord to keep each bud connected to each other. They rely on wireless technology such as Bluetooth to transmit audio from a hardware device. Supra-aural headphones or on-ear headphones have pads that press against the ears, rather than around them. Earphones are very small headphones that are fitted directly in the outer ear, facing but not inserted in the ear canal. In-ear headphones, also known as in-ear monitors (IEMs) or canalphones, are small headphones with similar portability to earbuds that are inserted in the ear canal itself. Lack of sound from the environment can be a problem when sound is a necessary cue for safety or other reasons, as when walking, driving, or riding near or in vehicular traffic. Some in-ear headphones utilize built-in microphones to allow some outside sound to be heard when desired.
  A headset is a headphone combined with a microphone. Headsets provide the equivalent functionality of a telephone handset with hands-free operation. Among applications for headsets, besides telephone
use, are aviation, theatre or television studio intercom systems, and console or PC gaming. Telephone headsets connect to a fixed-line telephone system. A telephone headset functions by replacing the handset of a telephone. For older models of telephones, the headset microphone impedance is different from that of the original handset, requiring a telephone amplifier for the telephone headset. A telephone amplifier provides basic pin-alignment similar to a telephone headset adaptor, but it also offers sound amplification for the microphone as well as the loudspeakers. Communication headsets are used for two-way communication and typically consist of a headphone and attached microphone. Such headsets are used in a variety of professions as aviation, military, sports, music, and many service-oriented sectors.
  Headphones use various types of transducer to convert electrical signals to sound. The moving coil driver, more commonly referred to as a "dynamic" driver is the most common type used in headphones. It consists of a stationary magnet element affixed to the frame of the headphone. Electrostatic drivers
consist of a thin, electrically charged diaphragm, typically a coated PET film membrane, suspended between two perforated metal plates electrodes. The electrical sound signal is applied to the electrodes creating an electrical field; depending on the polarity of this field. An electret driver functions along the same electromechanical means as an electrostatic driver. However the electret driver has a permanent charge built into it, whereas electrostatics have the charge applied to the driver by an external generator. Planar magnetic (also known as orthodynamic) headphones use similar technology to electrostatic headphones, with some fundamental differences. A balanced armature is a sound transducer design primarily intended to increase the electrical efficiency of the element by eliminating the stress on the diaphragm characteristic of many other magnetic transducer systems.
  Headphones can prevent other people from hearing the sound, either for privacy or to prevent disturbing others, as in listening in a public library. Although modern headphones have been particularly widely sold and used for listening to stereo recordings since the release of the Walkman, there is subjective debate regarding the nature of their reproduction of stereo sound. Stereo recordings represent the position of horizontal depth cues (stereo separation) via volume and phase differences of the sound in question between the two channels. When the sounds from two speakers mix. It is possible to change the spatial effects of stereo sound on headphones, to better approximate the presentation of speaker reproduction, by using frequency-dependent cross-feed between the channels. Using headphones at a sufficiently high volume level may cause temporary or permanent hearing impairment or deafness. The headphone volume often has to compete with the background noise, especially in loud places such as subway stations, aircraft, and large crowds. The usual way of limiting sound volume on devices driving headphones is by limiting output power. This has the additional undesirable effect of being dependent of the efficiency of the headphones; a device producing the maximum allowed power may not produce adequate volume when paired with low-efficiency, high-impedance equipment, while the same amount of power can reach dangerous levels with very efficient earphones.Hearing risk from headphones' use also applies to workers who must wear electronic or communication headsets as part of their daily job like call center and dispatch operators, sound engineers, firefighters and hearing damage depends on the exposure time.





Thursday, 21 April 2022




                                          SMARTWATCH TECHNOLOGY

A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a watch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and
telemetry. While early models could perform basic tasks, such as calculations, digital time telling, translations, and game-playing. While digital watches have been around for decades—some with abilities like calculators and unit converters—only in the 2010s did tech companies begin releasing watches with smartphone-like abilities.2010s smartwatches have more general functionality closer to martphones, including mobile apps, a mobile operating system and WiFi/Bluetooth connectivity. Some smartwatches function as portable media players, with FM radio and playback of digital audio and video files via a Bluetooth headset.While internal hardware varies, most have an electronic visual display, either backlit LCD or OLED.Software may include digital maps, schedulers and personal organizers, calculators, and various kinds of watch faces. The watch may communicate with external devices such as sensors, wireless headsets, or a heads-up display. Like other computers, a smartwatch may collect information from internal or external sensors and it may control, or retrieve data from, other instruments or computers. It may support wireless technologies such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and GPS. For many purposes, a "watch computer" serves as a front end for a remote system such as a smartphone, communicating with the smartphone using various wireless technologies.
  The first digital watch, which debuted in 1972, was the Pulsar manufactured by Hamilton Watch
Company. "Pulsar" became a brand name which would later be acquired by Seiko in 1978. In 1982.Seiko began to develop computers in the form of watches. The Data 2000 watch came with anexternal keyboard for data-entry. Data was synced from the keyboard to the watch via electro-magnetic coupling wireless docking.During the 1980s, Casio began to market a successful line of "computer watches", in addition to its calculator watches. Most notable was the Casio data bank series. Novelty "game watches", such as the Nelsonic game watches, were also produced by Casio and other companies.The early Timex Datalink Smartwatches realized a wireless data transfer mode to receive data from a PC. Appointments and contacts created with Microsoft Schedule+, the predecessor of MS Outlook, could be easily transmitted to the watch via a screen blinking light protocol.
 In 1999,Samsung launched the world's first watch phone, the SPH-WP10. It had a protruding antenna, a monochrome LCD screen, and a 90-minutes of talk time with an integrated speaker and microphone.In June 2000 IBM displayed a prototype for the WatchPad, IBM began to collaborate with Citizen Watch Co. to create the WatchPad. In 2003, Fossil released the Wrist PDA, a watch which ran the Palm OS and contained 8 MB of RAM and 4 MB of flash memory.It contained a built in stylus to help use the tiny monochrome display.
 In the same year, Microsoft announced the SPOT smartwatch and it began hitting stores in early 2004. SPOT stands for Smart Personal Objects Technology, an initiative by Microsoft to personalize household electronics and other everyday gadgets. For instance, the company demonstrated coffee makers, weather stations, and alarm clocks featuring built-in SPOT technology.The Microsoft SPOTWatch had a monochrome 90×126 pixel screen. Fossil, Suunto, and Tissot also sold smartwatches running the SPOT technology. For instance, Fossil's Abacus, which was a variant of the Fossil Wrist PDA. Sony Ericsson teamed up with Fossils, and released the first watch, MBW-100, that connected to Bluetooth.Sony Ericsson launches the Sony Ericsson LiveView, a wearable watch device which is basically an external Bluetooth display for an Android Smartphone.Sony Ericsson teamed up with Fossils, and released the first watch, MBW-100, that connected to Bluetooth.
  Watch had a monochrome 90×126 pixel screen. Fossil, Suunto, and Tissot also sold smartwatches running the SPOT technology. For instance, Fossil's Abacus, which was a variant of the Fossil Wrist PDA. Sony Ericsson teamed up with Fossils, and released the first watch, MBW-100, that connected to Bluetooth. SonyEricsson launches the Sony Ericsson LiveView, a wearable watch device which is basically an external Bluetooth display for an Android Smartphone.Sony Ericsson teamed up with Fossils, and released the first watch, MBW-100, that connected to Bluetooth.
 The list of companies that were engaged in smartwatch development activities consists of Acer, Apple, BlackBerry, Foxconn/Hon Hai, Google, LG, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Samsung, Sony, VESAG and Toshiba. Some notable omissions from this list include HP, HTC, Lenovo, and Nokia.The physical size of smartwatches is likely to be large.Insufficient battery life is an ongoing problem for smartwatch developers, as the battery life of devices at the time of publication was three to four days and this is likely to be reduced if further functions are added.New display technologies will be invented as a result of smartwatch research.The success level of smartwatches is unpredictable, as they may follow a similar trajectory to netbooks, or they may fulfill aims akin to those of Google Glass, another wearable electronic product.
 The Samsung Gear 2 was released among the few smartwatches to be equipped with a digital camera. It has a resolution of two megapixels and can record video in 720p. The Android Wear platform was introduced and the LG G Watch and Samsung Gear Live were released. The Wear-based Moto 360 was announced by Motorola.The launch of Samsung's Gear S smartwatch was covered by the media in late August 2014. The model features a curved Super AMOLED display and a built-in 3G modem.Many smartwatch models manufactured are completely functional as standalone products. Some are used in sports, the GPS tracking unit being used to record historical data. For example, after a workout, data can be uploaded onto a computer or online to create a log of activities for analysis or sharing. Some watches can serve as full GPS watches, displaying maps and current coordinates, and recording tracksSport watch functionality often includes activity tracker features also known as fitness tracker as seen in GPS watches made for training, diving, and outdoor sports. Functions may include training programs such as intervals, lap times, speed display, GPS tracking unit, route tracking, dive computer, heart rate monitor compatibility.
 Smartwatches have become widely used by schoolchildren. The devices are commonly colorful and made of plastic. They normally have no display unless a button is pushed. These smartwatches have limited capability compared to other smartwatches; their main functions consist of being able to conduct calls, displaying of time, and sometimes have air temperature sensitivity.Some smart watches can also help elderly with dementia by reporting their location to a caretaker in case they get lost, or if they fall. Hybrid smartwatches are watches with the traditional looks and feels of a watch, but they also come with smartwatch functionality.Fitbits are fitness trackers, which do have functionality similar to smartwatches, but they focus on fitness-oriented features and don't often come with the advanced features of smartwatches.

Wednesday, 23 February 2022




  Technology, the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life or, as it is sometimes phrased, to the change and manipulation of the human environment.Technology is the sum of any techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. System applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.

  Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies including today's global economy and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics.

 The distinction between science, engineering, and technology is not always clear. Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability, and safety. The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.  The history of mathematics, history of

technology, and history of philosophy are distinct areas of research and are covered in other articles. Mathematics is closely related to but distinct from natural science. Technology is likewise closely related to but clearly differs from the search for empirical truth.Some believe that within the next 10 years, humans will discover nanobot technology, while others believe that we are centuries away from its invention. It is believed by futurists that nanobot technology will allow humans to 'manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic scale.' This discovery could pave the way for many scientific and medical advancements, such as curing new diseases, or inventing new, more efficient technology. It is also believed that nanobots could be injected or otherwise inserted inside the human body, and replace certain parts, keeping humans healthy for an incredibly long amount of time, or combating organ failure to a degree.


Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication. Mobile technology has evolved rapidly over the past few years. Since the start of this millennium, a standard mobile device has gone from being no more than a simple two-way pager to being a mobile phone, GPS navigation device, an embedded web browser and instant messaging client, and a handheld gaming console. Mobile 

technology has different meanings in different aspects, mainly mobile technology in information technology and mobile technology in basketball technology, mainly based on the wireless technology of wireless devices equipment information technology integration. Mobile technology gave human society great change. The use of mobile technology in government departments can also be traced back to World War I. In recent years, the integration of mobile communication technology and information technology has made mobile technology the focus of industry attention. With the integration of mobile communication and mobile computing technology, mobile technology has gradually matured, and the mobile interaction brought by the application and development of mobile technology has provided online connection and communication for Ubiquitous Computing and Any time, anywhere Liaison and information exchange provide possibilities, provide new opportunities and challenges for mobile work, and promote further changes in social and organizational forms.

  Mobile Internet emerged from the development of PC Internet in the form of handheld, portable devices. The combination of mobile communication and the Internet has allowed users to have easier access in going online if they have mobile technologies such as smartphones, tablets, and laptops amongst the most popular. It is a general term for activities in which the technology, platforms, business models, and applications of the Internet are combined with mobile communications technology.Increasing mobile technology use has changed how the modern family interacts with one another through technology. With the rise of mobile devices, families are becoming increasingly on-the-move, and spend less time in physical contact with one another. However, this trend does not mean that families are no longer interacting with each other, but rather have evolved into a more digitized variant. A study has shown that the modern family actually learns better with usage of mobile media, and children are more willing to cooperate with their parents via a digital medium than a more direct approach.

  Mobile e-commerce can provide users with the services applications, information and entertainment they need anytime, anywhere. Purchasing and using goods and services have become more convenient with the introduction of a mobile terminal. Not to mention, websites have started to adopt various forms of mobile payments. The mobile payment platform not only supports various bank cards for online payment, but also supports various terminal operations such as mobile phones and telephones, which meets the needs of online consumers in pursuit of personalization and diversification.he next generation of smartphones will be context-aware, taking advantage of the growing availability of embedded physical sensors and data exchange abilities. One of the main features applying to this is that phones will start keeping track of users' personal data, and adapt to anticipate the information will need.Companies are developing software to take advantage of more accurate location-sensing data. This has been described as making the phone a virtual mouse able to click the real world. On the go,connectivity is more important than ever as smartphones are adapting to more and more tasks that one has to do sitting in front of a computer.

 Mobile technology, driven by the convergence of mobile communication technology and mobile computing technology, mainly includes four types of two-way radio communication or broadcast,mobile phone service based on cellular phones, SMS means Short Message Service, WAP means Wireless Application Protocol, GPRS means General Packet Radio Service, UMTS means 3G, 4G, 5G and now 6G Generation Mobile Communication Network, mobile-based, including laptops, tablets, PDAs means personal digital assistants, pagers, Bluetooth technology, RFID means radio frequency identification and GPS Global Positioning System,network-based WiFi or WAPI wireless Lan. 


 A camera is an optical instrument that captures a visual image. At a basic level, cameras consist of sealed boxes
with a small hole that allows light through to capture an image on a light-sensitive surface. Cameras have various mechanisms to control how the light falls onto the light-sensitive surface. Lenses focus the light entering the camera. The aperture can be narrowed or widened. A shutter mechanism determines the amount of time the photosensitive surface is exposed to light.The still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography. Captured images may be reproduced later as part of the process of photography, digital imaging, or photographic printing. Similar artistic fields in the moving-image camera domain are film, videography, and cinematography.

  All cameras use the same basic design light enters an enclosed box through a converging or convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time that light enters the camera. Most cameras also have a viewfinder, which shows the scene to be recorded, along with means to adjust various combinations of focus, aperture and shutter speed.Light enters a camera through the aperture, an opening adjusted by overlapping plates called the aperture ring.Typically located in the lens, this opening can be widened or narrowed to alter the amount of light that strikes the film or sensor.The shutter, along with the aperture, is one of two ways to control the amount of light entering the camera. The shutter determines the duration that the light-sensitive surface is exposed to light. The shutter opens, light enters the camera and exposes the film or sensor to light, and then the shutter closes. There are two types of mechanical shutters: the leaf-type shutter and the focal-plane shutter. The leaf-type uses a circular iris diaphragm maintained under spring tension inside or just behind the lens that rapidly opens and closes when the shutter is released.

 The lens of a camera captures light from the subject and focuses it on the sensor. The design and manufacturing of the lens are critical to photo quality. A technological revolution in camera design during the 19th century modernized optical glass manufacturing and lens design.Due to the optical properties of a photographic lens, only objects within a limited range of distance from the camera will be reproduced clearly. The process of adjusting this range is known as changing the camera's focus. There are various ways to accurately focus a camera. The simplest cameras have fixed focus and use a small aperture and wide-angle lens to ensure that everything within a certain range of distance from the lens. Rangefinder cameras allow the distance to objects to be measured employing a coupled parallax unit on top of the camera, allowing the focus to be set with accuracy. Experimental cameras such as the planar Fourier capture array PFCA do not require focusing to take pictures. In conventional digital photography, lenses or mirrors map all of the light originating from a single point of an in-focus object to a single point at the sensor plane. Each pixel thus relates an independent piece of information about the far-away scene.

 Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic plates, or photographic film. Video and digital cameras use an electronic image sensor, usually a charge-coupled device CCD or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the camera for later playback or processing.For cine cameras, film 35mm wide and perforated with sprocket holes was established as the standard format in the 1890s. It was used for nearly all film-based professional motion picture production. For amateur use, several smaller and therefore less expensive formats were introducedTraditionally used to tell the camera the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, film speed numbers are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system.In digital cameras, there is electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters.

 A flash provides a short burst of bright light during exposure and is a commonly-used artificial light source in photography. Most modern flash systems use a battery-powered high-voltage discharge through a gas-filled tube to generate bright light for a very short time a second or less. Additional flash equipment can include a light diffuser, mount and stand, reflector, soft box, trigger and cord.

 In photography, the single-lens reflex camera is provided with a mirror to redirect light from the lens to the viewfinder prior to releasing the shutter for composing and focusing an image. When the shutter is released, the mirror swings up and away, allowing the exposure of the photographic medium, and instantly returns after the exposure is finishedAlmost all SLR cameras use a front-surfaced mirror in the optical path to direct the light from the lens via a viewing screen and pentaprism to the eyepiece. At the time of exposure, the mirror is flipped up out of the light path before the shutter opens. Some early cameras experimented with other methods of providing through-the-lens viewing, including the use of a semi-transparent pellicle as in the Canon Pellix and others with a small periscope such as in the Corfield Periflex series. The large-format camera, taking sheet film, is a direct successor of the early plate cameras and remained in use for high-quality photography and technical, architectural, and industrial photography. There are three common types: the view camera, with its monorail and field camera variants, and the press camera.

  Twin-lens reflex cameras used a pair of nearly identical lenses: one to form the image and one as a viewfinder. The lenses were arranged with the viewing lens immediately above the taking lens. The viewing lens projects an image onto a viewing screen which can be seen from above. Instant camera, After exposure, every photograph is taken through pinch rollers inside of the instant camera. Thereby the developer paste contained in the paper sandwich is distributed on the image. After a minute, the cover sheet just needs to be removed and one gets a single original positive image with a fixed format. Subminiature cameras were first produced in the nineteenth century and use film significantly smaller than 35mm. The introduction of films enabled the existing designs for plate cameras to be made much smaller

and for the baseplate to be hinged so that it could be folded up, compressing the bellows. These designs were very compact and small models were dubbed vest pocket cameras. Folding roll film cameras were preceded by folding plate cameras, more compact than other designs.9Box cameras were introduced as budget-level cameras and had few, if any controls. The original box Brownie models had a small reflex viewfinder mounted on the top of the camera and had no aperture or focusing controls and just a simple shutter. As camera lens technology developed and wide aperture lenses became more common, rangefinder cameras were introduced to make focusing more precise. Early rangefinders had two separate viewfinder windows, one of which is linked to the focusing mechanisms and moved right or left as the focusing ring is turned. A movie camera or a video camera operates similarly to a still camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession, commonly at a rate of 24 frames per second. When the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved. The size and complexity of ciné cameras vary greatly depending on the uses required of the camera. Some professional equipment is very large and too heavy to be handheld whilst some amateur cameras were designed to be very small and light for single-handed operation.A professional video camera often called a television camera even though the use has spread beyond television is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images as opposed to a movie camera, that earlier recorded the images on film.

  A camcorder is an electronic device combining a video camera and a video recorder. Although marketing materials may use the colloquial term camcorder, the name on the package and manual is often video camera recorder. Most devices capable of recording video are camera phones and digital cameras primarily intended for still pictures; the term "camcorder" is used to describe a portable, self-contained device, with video capture and recording its primary function. Digital camera A digital camera is a camera that encodes digital images and videos, and stores them for later reproduction. They typically use semiconductor image sensors. Most cameras sold today are digital, and they are incorporated into many devices ranging from mobile phones called camera phones to vehicles. The first camera using digital electronics to capture and store images was developed by Kodak engineer Steven Sasson, Consumers adopted digital cameras in the 1990s, Professional video cameras transitioned to digital around the 2000s–2010s, Finally, movie cameras transitioned to digital in the 2010s.


  Computer technology is hardware and software both. Basically, its a combination of these two, creating such a system between two that can let you perform particular functions.Computer technology for developing areas is often through the donation of technology to developing areas. Many institutions, government, charitable, and for-profit organizations require technology development often involving hardware or software design, and the coordination of donors, distributors, and deployers. Technical development overlaps with the fields of technical training, maintenance and support. Developing countries lag behind other nations in terms of ready access to the internet, though computer access has started to bridge that gap. Access to computers, or to broadband access, remains rare for half of the world's population.Africa presents a unique cultural climate for the introduction of computer technology not only because of its diverse population, varied geography and multifaceted issues but also because of it singular challenges. Africa is composed of 53 countries many gaining independence since 1950 containing 75 unique ethnic groups and approximately 700 million people. It has been colonized and hence influenced strongly by Europeans from France, Portugal, Britain, Spain, Italy and Belgium except for the countries of Ethiopia and Liberia. Martin & O'Meara describe Africa's diversity and some of the issues that it presents: ethnicity, geography, rural/urban life styles, family life, access to developed world products, education, and media.South Africa has one of the largest and most successful introductions of computers to the residents in Africa with the Smart Cape Access Project initiated in 2000 in Cape Town winning the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Access to Learning Award in 2003, Libraries had the important structure with security, electricity and telephone connections, and known access by the public. 

 Residents have used Internet access to build their own businesses using Smart Cape for administration, to obtain jobs sometimes over seas, to create some unsanctioned small-scale ventures such as paying an educated user to write one's resume, to write letters, e-mail, play games, complete homework and do research, and to obtain information such as BMW advertisements among other uses. Older people, unemployed youth and school children have been the most prevalent users of the Internet with 79 percent being men. Unlike the Smart Cape Access Project, many other projects that attempt to introduce computers to Africa fail not only in the sustainability issue but also in training, support and feedback. Although in many cases access to the Internet via cable or wireless and electricity remain overwhelming issues. An example of further difficulties surrounding introducing computers in Africa is found in the study of Mozambique one of the poorest nations of the world with 60 percent of its population below the poverty line. As a proponent of self-determination not excluding the benefit of philanthropy, a review of projects discussed above and others merged with the successful Fisher approach to KickStart International could provide a framework for more successful introduction of computers to Africa, possibly skipping to first world technology. Despite their poverty, Mozambicans view their education and access to the Internet as only second to obtaining enough food to eat.Martin Fisher started KickStart International with Nick Moon in 1991 as a non-profit organization that develops and markets new technologies for use in Africa. It develops technologies advocating understanding the cultural factors surrounding making money in Africa rather than an approach of giving away technology with expertise that has little to do with Africa's ability to make a living.

  While KickStart has not talked something as technically challenging as computers, its business plan can be easily adapted to the introduction of computers in Africa. For example, the Smart Cape Access Project has shown widespread success understanding the culture and environment of Cape Town, but still is concerned about sustainability and use by women. Most notable, the project needs to consider how access to the Internet can provide income producing tools to create new wealth and pursue a better maintenance plan. Also of importance is inclusion of women and girls' positive impact in the roll out of technologies for the eventual introduction of computers to Africa. Uganda typically has both repair and refurbishers of computers. In some countries charitable NPOs can give tax-deductible donation receipts for computers they're able to refurbish or otherwise reuse.

 Technology leaders like Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates argue that developing areas have more pressing needs than computer technology, A 2010 research report from the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre found Very few ICT4D activities have proved sustainable... Recent research has stressed the need to shift from a technology-led approach, where the emphasis is on technical innovation towards an approach that emphasises innovative use of already established technology mobiles, radio, television. However, of  applications of ICTs for development, E-government, E-learning and E-health were found to be possible of great success, as well as the strengthening of social networks and boosting of security particularly of women. Finally, while the training, support, hardware and software may all be donated, it is rare for another vital component of technology, Internet access, to be made available at a discounted rate. In about half the countries in Africa, one year of Internet supply will cost more than the average annual income.

    The history of mathematics, history of technology, and history of philosophy are distinct areas of research and are covered in other articles. Mathematics is closely related to but distinct from natural science. Technology is likewise closely related to but clearly differs from the search for empirical truth.Some believe that within the next 10 years, humans will discover nanobot technology, while others believe that we are centuries away from its invention. It is believed by futurists that nanobot technology will allow humans to 'manipulate matter at the molecular and atomic scale.' This discovery could pave the way for many scientific and medical advancements, such as curing new diseases, or inventing new, more efficient technology. It is also believed that nanobots could be injected or otherwise inserted inside the human body, and replace certain parts, keeping humans healthy for an incredibly long amount of time, or combating organ failure to a degree.

Saturday, 5 February 2022

Fashion Information

 Fashion is popular aesthetic expression at a certain time and in a certain context, especially in clothing, footwear , lifestyle, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body proportions.Whereas a trend often connotes a very specific aesthetic expression, and often lasting shorter than a season, fashion is a distinctive and industry-supported expression traditionally tied to the fashion season and collections.Style is an expression that lasts over many seasons and is often connected to cultural movements and social markers, symbols, class and culture. According to sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, fashion connotes "the latest fashion, the latest 
Even though they are often used together, the term fashion differs from clothes and costume, where the first describes the material and technical garment, whereas the second has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear. Fashion instead describes the social and temporal system that "activates" dress as a social signifier in a certain time and context. Philosopher Giorgio Agamben connects fashion to the current intensity of the qualitative moment, to the temporal aspect the Greek called kairos, whereas clothes belong to the quantitative, to what the Greek called chronos.
Everyone is evaluated by their attire, and evaluation includes the consideration of colors, materials, silhouette, and how garments appear on the body. Garments identical in style and material also appear different depending on the wearer's body shape, or whether the garment has been washed, folded, mended, or is new.
With increasing mass-production of consumer commodities at cheaper prices, and with global reach, sustainability has become an urgent issue amongst politicians, brands and consumers.


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